Animals that make good candidates for domestication typically share certain traits: Domestication happens through selective breeding. Cultivation and domestication had multiple origins: arguments [47] Based on this, the pleiotropy hypotheses can be separated into two theories. Those animals established a commensal relationship with humans in which the animals benefited but the humans received no harm but little benefit. [12][51] Dingos have lived apart from humans for thousands of years but still have the same brain size as that of a domestic dog. Learn more. These gene variations were unlikely to have been the result of natural evolution, and indicate selection on both morphology and behavior during dog domestication. A 2017 study found evidence that early dog-like wolves were indeed genetically disposed to be friendly. Domestication has played an enormous part in the development of humankind and material culture.It has resulted in the appearance of agriculture as a special form of animal and plant production. occurred with switch from hunting-gathering to agricultural societies. [44], The commensal pathway was traveled by vertebrates that fed on refuse around human habitats or by animals that preyed on other animals drawn to human camps. It was not until 11,000 YBP that people living in the Near East entered into relationships with wild populations of aurochs, boar, sheep, and goats. animal domestication. This new definition recognizes a mutualistic relationship in which both partners gain benefits. [7][40], Jared Diamond in his book Guns, Germs, and Steel enquired as to why, among the world's 148 large wild terrestrial herbivorous mammals, only 14 were domesticated, and proposed that their wild ancestors must have possessed six characteristics before they could be considered for domestication:[3]:p168–174, The sustained selection for lowered reactivity among mammal domesticates has resulted in profound changes in brain form and function. Conflating these two processes muddles our understanding of the original process and can lead to an artificial inflation of the number of times domestication took place. Individuals that exhibit desirable traits are selected to be bred, and these desirable traits are then passed along to future generations. It probably only came into being once people were familiar with either commensal or prey-pathway domesticated animals. Pigs, for example, may have been domesticated as their populations became accustomed to the human niche, which would suggest a commensal pathway, or they may have been hunted and followed a prey pathway, or both. [7][12] This implies that not all animals can be domesticated, e.g. [12], This biological mutualism is not restricted to humans with domestic crops and livestock but is well-documented in nonhuman species, especially among a number of social insect domesticators and their plant and animal domesticates, for example the ant–fungus mutualism that exists between leafcutter ants and certain fungi. [38][7] It was followed by livestock and crop domestication, and the transition of humans from foraging to farming in different places and times across the planet. 43:628–52, Valclav Smil, 2011, Harvesting the Biosphere:The Human Impact, Population and Development Review 37(4): 613–636, Table 2), Kruska, D. 1988. cates. This page was last edited on 15 November 2020, at 06:11. [15][55][56], In 2015, a study compared the diversity of dental size, shape and allometry across the proposed domestication categories of modern pigs (genus Sus).

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