The lack of political will might explain the challenge of implementation of existing laws and institutional mechanisms in place. Effective performance: some authors argue that excessive transparency and accountability might have a negative effect on organisational performance. To be aware of the different types of accountability and transparency and how they can relate to each other is a first step towards more efficient accountability and transparency … F��þ�*��k�ۘP��|��Ft�[�)C��Cջė� On the other hand, the quality of the information released determines what kind of accountability is possible. In this case, the combination of transparency with secrecy might nullify transparency measures and impede accountability. y�{�)0���VH������_�. Both terms are used in a wide variety of settings such as in businesses, governance , and media. The transparency movement embodies the hope that a combination of new technologies, publicly accessible data, and fresh activism can more effectively assist people to hold their representatives to account, which will lead to a re-building of trust in democratic institutions. endstream endobj startxref 2016; Hood 2010). One recent congressional proposal would have made the Fed subject to occasional audits by the Government Accountability Office (GAO). When transparency is demanded to governments by citizens following its right to information and participation, the implementation of transparency is expected to be open and include information on policy decision-making processes, management of funding and results, among other issues. In this sense, authors also refer to active transparency (voluntary disclosure of information) and passive transparency (release of information following a request) (Mabillard and Zumofen 2015). In both areas that demand has evolved over time, acquiring variations in its purpose. What can make the difference, according to the authors, is the content of information, which can be of two types: compromising and non-compromising. Some empirical examples contradict Fox’s conclusion on the disconnect between transparency and hard accountability. On one hand, that relationship can be one of collaboration; for example, when reform-minded officials are allies of advocates to improve services. In some contexts, the demand for transparency finds limitations in areas in which public decision making is protected and exempt of the requirement to be disclosed by law (Prat 2005). After an investigation by Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB) about the availability of books, the textbook errors and the quality of the books printed, the government filed a lawsuit against the corrupt institutions that had caused the shortage. The information provided by transparency will give customers the capacity to switch to higher-performing providers, which might increase the willingness of companies to be accountable so that they do not lose customers. Malesky et al (2012) finding questions arguments on the benefits of transparency in authoritarian national legislatures for its potential to increase responsiveness to stakeholders such as NGOs and media (Kaufman and Bellver 2005). Both forms involve power transmission through the obligation of the agent to inform the principal of their conduct, and the capacity of the principal to ask questions and to pass judgement (Bovens 2006; Hood 2010). For instance, transparency on actions rather than on consequences might reduce the chances for accountability since the agent might be more interested in selecting the information according to what is expected and is seen as “normal”, while withholding challenging but important information (Pratt 2005). In the U4 Anti-corruption Resource Centre, accountability is defined as “the obligation of an individual or an organisation (either in the public or the private sectors) to accept responsibility for their activities, and to disclose them in a transparent manner. In analysing the Swiss context, Mabillard and Zumofen (2015) also find that the disclosure of information may actually lead to sanctions. In this example, a simple access to information provoked sanctions. The same view applies to transparency, where the intentions of transparency and the actual transparency is seen as problematic due to the unpredictable or reverse effects that transparency measures might have. We always assume that there is a direct link between transparency and accountability, but is this a given or is it supported by evidence? Nevertheless, the positive impact of transparency on accountability is often more theoretical than empirical (Hale 2008; Meijer 2013; Mulgan 2012; Bovens 2006). Arguments made against transparency are based on the following ideas: Protection: some information could be used in a hurtful way by a third party (Prat 2005). Only when there is institutional answerability is there an impact of transparency (in its “clear” form) on accountability (in its “soft” form). He distinguishes four worldviews: hierarchist, egalitarian, individualist and fatalist. Some definitions emphasise that the disclosure of information is not enough, and the latter has to be reliable, accessible, of good quality and on time to be effective and understandable to the principal. A year later, mortality in children under five fell by 33%, and immunisation rates and treatment practices rose by 20%. In trying to determine whether transparency interventions can improve delegate performance in authoritarian parliaments through a field experiment in Vietnam, Malesky et al (2012) find that the higher the exposure to transparency –measured in terms of internet penetration in a province and online exposure- the most likely a delegate was to behave in a conformist manner. The idea that transparency can make institutions more effective and provide greater accountability and better results for the public seems uncontroversial on the surface. On one hand, a closed forum of debate sometimes represents a safe place in which delegates might have more freedom to criticize regime leaders and for the latter to accept it, facilitating the debate and solution-seeking among authorities and other actors. For long lasting hierarchical accountability, reforms in local governments involved the creation of bottom-up mechanisms, such as greater transparency and open markets for public services. Hood (2010) offers an alternative model regarding the typology and relationship between transparency and accountability. Read on to understand 6 ways you can increase accountability on your team. h�Q� Both types of relationship, often coexisting in the same situation, might have a positive effect on accountability. In this example, the accountability process took place before the transparency process and the remedy that led to the disclosure of information happened later (Mabillar and Zumofen 2015). In general, a positive view among theorists and practitioners predominates on the benefits of transparency on accountability. For instance, between 2010 and 2015 the UK’s coalition government introduced reforms in the police forces in England and Wales for them to publish a range of performance and financial information online and directly elected police and crime commissioners to oversee those forces (Murphy et al. With so much to gain, we hope that you use these tips to your advantage in creating greater transparency in your workplace. Soft accountability refers to the answerability of the institution, and hard accountability is the answerability with the possibility of sanctions. According to Hood, the form that transparency and accountability acquire, as well as the relationship between them, depends on particular ways of looking at the world. Arguments in favour of closed door decision making point to the danger of using transparency to “fulfil expectations” and state that secrecy favours less public posturing and gives space to governments to deliberate freely (Heisenberg 2005). Another proposal called on the Fed to create an explicit monetary policy rule. The potential of transparency to lead to more accountability depends in great manner on contextual considerations. With increased transparency, hospitals need to develop strategies to address patient satisfaction while finding a way to participate for more fully in the patient satisfaction dialogue and social media communications, including the rating process.

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