startxref Its subject is the earlier stages of industrial development in Russia during the first sixty years of the nineteenth century. .3��/4���u3��3��|8Z /BitsPerComponent 8 /Filter /FlateDecode /Subtype /Image >> /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB The task was viewed as a formidable one. In the West, the motivation for development was largely entrepreneurial, while in Russia the political and military classes were its driving forces. It was a time when new cities came up and new industrialised regions developed, railways expanded and the Industrial Revolution occurred. There were three alternatives available: for Russians to build the machines themselves in Russia; for the government to import finished locomotives and cars from abroad; or for foreign engineers to be contracted to build the necessary equipment in Russia. /Name /Im7 In the late 19th century, Russia began its process of industrialization following its defeat at the hands of Western nations in the Crimean War. 0000310805 00000 n << /Subtype /Image Domestic trade was conducted largely through an antiquated system of transient, seasonal fairs. 0000067587 00000 n /Creator (NitroPDF 6.0) 0000053282 00000 n 0000135918 00000 n 0000077110 00000 n 5 0 obj 0000198721 00000 n 0000163553 00000 n In an 1862 report to the Minister of Finances on the Russian machine industry, A. S. Ershov, Professor of Technology and Practical Mechanics at Moscow University, noted: We are beginning to outlive the age when the fate of our mechanical plants was in the hands of foreigners and we lived by the beck and call of foreign minds and worked with foreign machines.¹. 158 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 161 /H [ 931 500 ] /L 169999 /E 18161 /N 26 /T 166720 >> endobj xref 158 18 0000000016 00000 n 0000000729 00000 n 0000000786 00000 n 0000001431 00000 n 0000001606 00000 n 0000001761 00000 n 0000002116 00000 n 0000002673 00000 n 0000003326 00000 n 0000009091 00000 n 0000009151 00000 n 0000009741 00000 n 0000010238 00000 n 0000010298 00000 n 0000015936 00000 n 0000016030 00000 n 0000000931 00000 n 0000001409 00000 n trailer << /Size 176 /Info 153 0 R /Encrypt 160 0 R /Root 159 0 R /Prev 166709 /ID[<33fe20f05a5130d22a8668c7d5a609e9><33fe20f05a5130d22a8668c7d5a609e9>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 159 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 152 0 R >> endobj 160 0 obj << /Filter /Standard /V 1 /R 2 /O (��U'j�Yn6\rT�N�������>/g�@B) /U (Uj����c\n\(� t�Ef#�����_v������) /P 65472 >> endobj 174 0 obj << /S 411 /T 497 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 175 0 R >> stream The Russian Revolution was, first, a political revolution that overthrew the monarchy of Nicholas II and made the construction of a new governmental system a central problem of the revolution. As commercial pressures for improved transportation intensified in the early nineteenth century, it was natural that an initial reliance would be placed on the ancient water links of the northern and southern seas and of Europe and Asia. 0000060614 00000 n This content downloaded from on Fri, 15 Nov 2013 09:43:54 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions. 0000002356 00000 n One answer comes from contemporary Russia. Communism-complete socialism, all land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses 391 103 At least three aspects of technological development can be distinguished in any society: the educational, the creative, and the practical. 0000068101 00000 n The St. Petersburg businessmen had been given an unprecedented invitation to come to the tsar’s office and express their gratitude for his recent decision to build a railroad between the two Russian capitals.¹ By the expression, “St. /Width 204 1) Economic system in Russian agriculture after 1861 2) Revolution of 1905-07, 1917, War Communism, New Economic Policy 3) Industrialization Debate and How the Command Economy Emerged 4) Soviet Statistics 5) Was the Transition to the Command Economy Inevitable? Prior to this period, there were no large manufacturing establishments employing wage labor in the Muscovite or Kievan states. Nevertheless, a few small cities of a new and purely industrial type began to appear in some areas. The immensity of such a project in the 1840’s is dwarfed by the image of the gigantic transcontinental systems of the United States, Europe, the Middle East, and of Russia herself in the late nineteenth century. This is simplistic. i�z�Րޛ�? �l"�͢h�S4������FM1�Cd6c���lӹd�|���{~������ ����kA��� �@���b�n�@F���&�թUp3�Y�� �/�. His host, a millionaire, was a “genuine Russian, with a beard and parted hair, and a long blue kaftan.” The merchant’s son, however, was clean shaven and dressed in a European suit, just as the father’s house was filled with European furniture. ��ΊF�Y�}(Ω~�._�������K�H�'���w�l��C�h�@�C�`�g׍-�`�OK]0��V#eT��#����`������. A European born and trained business wizard, his achievements—dating back to the early 1840’s—in the creation of new industrial enterprises and the mechanization of old ones made him a millionaire and a baron. 0000054913 00000 n All Rights Reserved. What actually came to be were numerous specific policies designed to stimulate Russian industry. 0000058808 00000 n ��������OHLJNIMK �P3 Industrial projects and incentives … 0000121518 00000 n 0000080144 00000 n /Name /Im8 0000077477 00000 n The gilded domes of Lucknow—the pagodas of China—Byzantine churches—Grecian temples—palaces in the style of Versailles—heavy inexpressive German buildings—wooden country cottages—glaring American signs—boulevards, gardens, silent lanes, roaring streets, open markets, Turkish bazaars, French cafés, German beer cellars and Chinese tea houses—all are found here, not grouped exclusively into separate cantons, but mixed and jumbled together, until Europe and Asia, the past and present, the old world and the new, are so blended and confounded that it is impossible to say which predominates….

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