The form of tea popular in China in Eichū's time was dancha (団茶, lit., "cake tea" or "brick tea")[4] — tea compressed into a nugget in the same manner as pu-er tea. There should, too, be a painting (jiku) on a silk hanging scroll. A purpose-built room designed for the wabi style of tea is called a chashitsu, and is ideally 4.5-tatami wide and long in floor area. The guest rotates the bowl to avoid drinking from its front, takes a sip, and compliments the host on the tea. After taking a few sips, the guest wipes clean the rim of the bowl and passes it to the second guest. This signifies a change from the more formal portion of the gathering to the more casual portion, and the host will return to the tea room to bring in a smoking set (タバコ盆, tabako-bon) and more confections, usually higashi, to accompany the thin tea, and possibly cushions for the guests' comfort. In Japan, tea is more than just a hot drink. [13] The first documented appearance of the term koicha is in 1575.[14]. Ancient History Encyclopedia. A chakai is a relatively simple course of hospitality that includes confections, thin tea, and perhaps a light meal. Only when the first offering has been mastered will students move on. Tea-drinking began in China, and its discovery is credited to the Indian sage Bodhidharma (aka Daruma), the founder of Zen Buddhism. After the meal there is a break when the guests leave the room and the host sweeps it down, sets up a flower arrangements and makes preparations for serving the tea. After the death of Rikyū, essentially three schools descended from him to continue the tradition. Further, Haga points out that Rikyū preferred to hang bokuseki (lit., "ink traces"), the calligraphy of Zen Buddhist priests, in the tea room. "Wabi" represents the inner, or spiritual, experiences of human lives. The interior of the medieval minimalist tea room/house would be copied in private homes right down to today. The guests are served a cup of the hot water, kombu tea, roasted barley tea, or sakurayu. Related Content Kaiseki (懐石) or cha-kaiseki (茶懐石) is a meal served in the context of a formal tea function. The flooring consisted of tatami matting. The diet of ancient Japan was heavily influenced by its geography... Buddhist monasteries have been part of the Japanese cultural landscape... Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan, The Japanese Tea Ceremony: Cha-no-Yu and the Zen Art of Mindfulness. From China, the habit spread along with other ideas via traders, diplomats, and visiting monks so that eventually it reached Japan in the 8th century CE, evolving into a whole cultural experience from the 13th century CE onwards. Chabana is said, depending upon the source, to have been either developed or championed by Sen no Rikyū. The lines in tatami mats (畳目, tatami-me) are used as one guide for placement, and the joins serve as a demarcation indicating where people should sit. The most important part of a chaji is the preparation and drinking of koicha, which is followed by usucha. [2] However, the interest in tea in Japan faded after this. In the 18th century, it was popularized by the Ōbaku monk Baisao, who sold tea in Kyoto, and later came to be regarded as the first sencha master. To avoid stepping on it people may walk around it on the other mats, or shuffle on the hands and knees. In Japan, those who wish to study tea ceremony typically join a "circle", a generic term for a group that meets regularly to participate in a given activity. In the early 9th century, Chinese author Lu Yu wrote The Classic of Tea, a treatise on tea focusing on its cultivation and preparation. Chabana has its roots in ikebana, an older style of Japanese flower arranging, which itself has roots in Shinto and Buddhism. Cite This Work This style of sharing a bowl of koicha first appeared in historical documents in 1586, and is a method considered to have been invented by Sen no Rikyū.[14]. Following this, guests are served a meal in several courses accompanied by sake and followed by a small sweet (wagashi) eaten from special paper called kaishi (懐紙), which each guest carries, often in a decorative wallet or tucked into the breast of the kimono. By having a dedicated room, the tea-drinkers could more easily detach themselves from their everyday cares. Both men and women wear white tabi (divided-toe socks). Except when walking, when moving about on the tatami one places one's closed fists on the mats and uses them to pull oneself forward or push backwards while maintaining a seiza position. Having got everything right in terms of setting and paraphernalia as noted above, one then has to do what all this has been leading up to: make tea. A purpose-built chashitsu typically has a low ceiling, a hearth built into the floor, an alcove for hanging scrolls and placing other decorative objects, and separate entrances for host and guests. The following is a general description of a noon chaji held in the cool weather season at a purpose-built tea house. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. A special tatami is used which has a cut-out section providing access to the hearth. He is said to have taught that chabana should give the viewer the same impression that those flowers naturally would give if they were [still] growing outdoors, in nature. The assistant also serves the tea and sweets to the guests. It is possible, therefore, for ryūrei-style temae to be conducted nearly anywhere, even outdoors. After all the guests have taken tea, the host cleans the utensils in preparation for putting them away. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. The Japanese Way of Tea: From Its Origins in China to Sen Rikyu, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. In the ryūrei (立礼) style, the tea is prepared with the host kneeling at a special table, and the guests are also kneeling at tables. [5] The custom of drinking tea, first for medicinal, and then largely for pleasurable reasons, was already widespread throughout China. The way of tea was never so closely intertwined with politics before or after. The procedure for the tea ceremony will vary depending on the venue and the time of year, but usually the host and the guest will give each other a silent bow and then they will ritually purify themselves in a stone basin by washing their hands and rinsing their mouths with water. Scrolls are sometimes placed in the waiting room as well. Rikyu was typical of the tea masters of medieval Japan who served as important advisors to rulers - not only on ceremonial etiquette but also politics - and who often acted as official ambassadors, diplomats and negotiators. Traditionally, the year is divided by tea practitioners into two main seasons: the sunken hearth (ro (炉)) season, constituting the colder months (traditionally November to April), and the brazier (furo (風炉)) season, constituting the warmer months (traditionally May to October). They are selected for their appropriateness for the occasion, including the season and the theme of the particular get-together. Around the end of the 12th century, the style of tea preparation called "tencha" (点茶), in which powdered matcha was placed into a bowl, hot water added, and the tea and hot water whipped together, was introduced to Japan by Buddhist monk Eisai on his return from China. Purpose-built tea rooms have a sunken hearth in the floor which is used in winter. Sen no Rikyū was the leading teamaster of the regent Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who greatly supported him in codifying and spreading the way of tea, also as a means of solidifying his own political power. Hiroichi Tsutsui (筒井紘一), "Tea-drinking Customs in Japan", paper presented at the 4th International Tea Culture Festival, Korean Tea Culture Association (Seoul, 1996), Rupert Cox – The Zen Arts: An Anthropological Study of the Culture of Aesthetic 2013 1136855580 "Jaku is significantly different from the other three principles of the chado: wa, kei and set. Japanese historical documents about tea that differentiate between usucha and koicha first appear in the Tenmon era (1532–55). [3], In China, tea had already been known, according to legend, for more than a thousand years. One year later the regent ordered his teamaster to commit ritual suicide. It also has an attached preparation area known as a mizuya. The desired greenery is evergreens rather than flowers, and then moss or soft grass underfoot to begin the calming effect of the ceremony before it has even started. The tea bowl, tea whisk, tea scoop, chakin and tea caddy are placed on a tray, and the hot water is prepared in a kettle called a tetsubin, which is heated on a brazier.

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